What is a Fissure In Ano?

Your doctor will likely ask about your medical history and perform a physical exam, including a gentle inspection of the anal region. Often the tear is visible. Usually this exam is all that's needed to diagnose an anal fissure.

An acute anal fissure looks like a fresh tear, somewhat like a paper cut. A chronic anal fissure likely has a deeper tear, and may have internal or external fleshy growths. A fissure is considered chronic if it lasts more than eight weeks.

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What are the causes?

1.Passing large or hard stools.

2.Constipation and straining during bowel movements.

3.Chronic diarrhea.

What are its symptoms?

1. Pain, sometimes severe, during bowel movements.

2. Pain after bowel movements that can last up to several hours.

3. Bright red blood on the stool or toilet paper after a bowel movement.

4. A visible crack in the skin around the anus.

5. A small lump or skin tag on the skin near the anal fissure

Treatment

Anal fissures often heal within a few weeks if you take steps to keep your stool soft, such as increasing your intake of fiber and fluids. Soaking in warm water for 10 to 20 minutes several times a day, especially after bowel movements, can help relax the sphincter and promote healing.

1. Externally applied nitroglycerin (Rectiv). to help increase blood flow to the fissure and promote healing and to help relax the anal sphincter. Nitroglycerin is generally considered the medical treatment of choice when other conservative measures fail. Side effects may include headache, which can be severe.

2.Topical anesthetic creamssuch as lidocaine hydrochloride (Xylocaine) may be helpful for pain relief..

3.Botulinum toxin type A (Botox) injection to paralyze the anal sphincter muscle and relax spasms.

4.Blood pressure medications such as oral nifedipine (Procardia) or diltiazem (Cardizem) can help relax the anal sphincter. These medications may be taken by mouth or applied externally and may be used when nitroglycerin is not effective or causes significant side effects.

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